Macronutrients are the energy suppliers carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Micronutrients are minerals and vitamins, i.e. magnesium, calcium, vitamin C…. I won’t go into detail because this is supposed to be a program of practice, not theory. Also, don’t think in terms of carbs and fats make you fat and protein is good. Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, calories are neither bad nor good, but necessary in certain quantities. The body needs them. You just have to be careful to supply them in the right amount and type for your purpose/goal.
Carbohydrates occur in various compounds. These are absorbed and utilized by the body at different rates and therefore have different effects on insulin levels. Whole grain products like brown rice are made up of complex compounds that take longer to digest, make you feel fuller longer, and offer more micronutrients. Simpler carbohydrate compounds are broken down very quickly and easily lead to cravings after a short time. As a general rule, try to use whole grain products whenever possible.
Proteins are composed of different building blocks, the amino acids. There are essential amino acids which the body cannot produce itself and which must therefore be taken in through the diet. Others can be produced by the body itself. Proteins are the building blocks of our body.
You don’t have to worry about the biological value if you eat a varied diet. With a vegan diet, you just have to plan a little better there. You don’t need an extreme amount of protein for sports, but you shouldn’t go below a lower limit either. I would apply at least 1.2g/kg body weight. At a weight of 80kg that would be just under 90g of protein. Normally, you consume significantly more protein anyway.
Fats store a lot of energy. In relatively small quantities, fats are also essential for the functioning of the human body. I’m sure you’ve heard of the division between saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated. Just remember that you always take in enough saturated fatty acids through your diet.
Only the monounsaturated and polyunsaturated ones require some planning. There are even differences in the polyunsaturated ones. For example, linseed oil as well as fish has polyunsaturated fatty acids, but of different types! However, you don’t have to understand this in detail, just make sure to incorporate certain foods into your diet on a regular basis.
Fats are essential for many processes in the body. You should consume at least 50g daily for health reasons.
Minerals and vitamins are absolutely necessary for life. You’ve heard of most of them. Vitamin C, magnesium, etc. Some are a little more unknown, such as manganese or chromium. As a rule, you do not have to worry about gaining enough weight on a balanced diet.
Rules of thumb for everyday life:
1. Keep an eye on calories.
2. Choose healthy foods.
3. At least 1,2 g protein/kg body weight
4. At least 50g fat
5. Consume enough vegetables and fruits.
What foods should I eat now:
Choose from a variety of healthy foods. I’ll give you lists of foods to make your diet from below. Exact plans can be found here. The lists are not complete with all the healthy foods in the world, but give you a good overview and impression. For example, if a food is listed under carbohydrates, it does not mean that this food consists exclusively of carbohydrates, but mainly. Most foods contain a mixture of different macronutrients. As you can tell, I only recommend foods that are as unprocessed as possible.
Whole wheat pasta
-Mostly fatty for the absorption of omega 3 fatty acids. E.g. fatty salmon. Also in the form of smoked salmon.
-If you consume fish regularly, also low-fat fish such as tuna.
-Soy products, e.g. tofu or also soy curd cheese
-legumes, e.g. chickpeas or kidney beans
-Fat, such as salmon
Minerals & Vegetables: